Circular business model typology

Several authors have recently tried to define specific categories of circular business models. At circular academy, based on our different interactions with entrepreneurs developing circular business models, we have classified circular business models based on 5 distinct approaches: clean loops, short loops, access loops, long loops and cascading loops. Each of these models focus primarly on one aspect of the product/service entire life cycle, but their consequences are spread throughout the various building blocks of business models.
business models

Each business model category includes specific sub-model, defined in the table below.

circular business models